Research Highlight Archive
Constructal law of design and evolution: Physics, biology, technology, and society
Adrian Bejan and Sylvie Lorente
Partial Abstract: This is a review of the theoretical and applied progress made based on the Constructal law of design and evolution in nature, with emphasis on the last decade. The Constructal law is the law of physics that accounts for the natural tendency of all flow systems (animate and inanimate) to change into configurations that offer progressively greater flow access over time.
Oxidation of Al-bearing III-V materials: A review of key progress
J. M. Dallesasse and N. Holonyak, Jr.
Partial Abstract: Since the discovery of III-V oxidation by Dallesasse and Holonyak in 1989, significant progress has been made both technically and commercially in the use of oxides in compound semiconductor devices. Devices ranging from lasers to transistors have been fabricated that capitalize on the process-induced modification of refractive index and conductivity, allowing control of the two carriers of information in opto-electronic systems—the photon and the electron.
Plasma processing of low-k dielectrics
Mikhail R. Baklanov, Jean-Francois de Marneffe, Denis Shamiryan, Adam M. Urbanowicz, Hualiang Shi, Tatyana V. Rakhimova, Huai Huang, and Paul S. Ho
Partial Abstract: This paper presents an in-depth overview of the present status and novel developments in the field of plasma processing of low dielectric constant (low-k) materials developed for advanced interconnects in ULSI technology. The paper summarizes the major achievements accomplished during the last 10 years.
Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends
Ville Miikkulainen, Markku Leskelä, Mikko Ritala, and Riikka L. Puurunen
In this thematic review, the authors first describe the basics of ALD, summarize the two-reactant ALD processes to grow inorganic materials developed to-date, updating the information of an earlier review on ALD [R. L. Puurunen, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005)], and give an overview of the status of processing ternary compounds by ALD. They also analyze the published experimental data for information on the crystallinity and phase of inorganic materials deposited by ALD from different reactants at different temperatures.
Electrical conduction in chalcogenide glasses of phase change memory
M. Nardone, M. Simon, I. V. Karpov, and V. G. Karpov
Amorphous chalcogenides have been extensively studied over the last half century due to their application in rewritable optical data storage and in non-volatile phase change memory devices. Yet, the nature of the observed non-ohmic conduction in these glasses is still under debate. This review consolidates and expands the current state of knowledge related to DC conduction in these materials.
Multi-functional dielectric elastomer artificial muscles for soft and smart machines
Iain A. Anderson, Todd A. Gisby, Thomas G. McKay, Benjamin M. O’Brien, and Emilio P. Calius
This focused review explores dielectric elastomer (DE) technology and its possibilities including applications in soft robotics.
Ultrafast time resolved x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray absorption near edge structure
Ali Oguz Er, Jie Chen, and Peter M. Rentzepis
The experiments described in this focused review demonstrate that time resolved x-ray techniques provide powerful means for obtaining new knowledge about the structure of short-lived excited states and transient species.
Two-dimensional carbon nanostructures: Fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and potential applications
Y. H. Wu, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen
We review recent progress regarding various types of two-dimensional carbon nanostructures including graphene and free-standing carbon nanowalls/nanosheets. After a brief overview of the electronic properties of graphene, we focus on the synthesis, characterization and potential applications of these carbon nanostructures.
High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review
Banqiu Wu, Ajay Kumar, and Sharma Pamarthy
High aspect ratio silicon etch is reviewed, including commonly used terms, history, main applications, different technological methods, critical challenges, and main theories of the technologies.
Patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymer electrets
The piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymers is briefly introduced, an overview on the preparation of polymer electrets with patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity is provided and a survey of selected applications is presented.